turismo españa wikipedia

The fourth military authority of the State is the Chief of the Defence Staff (JEMAD). They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute. Next to it is an art installation of green plants growing on the wall of the neighbouring house by French botanist Patrick Blanc. Their daughter, Joan of Austria, founded this convent of nuns of the Poor Clare order in 1559. During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America. [21], Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild. As of 1 January 2020, the Spanish population increased in 392,921 in 2019, reaching a number of 47,330 million inhabitants. Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little social peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea. In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla, Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and Andorra. Industrialisation, the development of railways and incipient capitalism developed in several areas of the country, particularly in Barcelona, as well as Labour movement and socialist and anarchist ideas. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Philippines to Mexico, making possible the Manila galleon trading route. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings.[195]. Alonso Berruguete (Valladolid School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, as in the Basque-style cod, albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime. During the Renaissance the major plays are La Celestina and El Lazarillo de Tormes, while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, Santa Teresa de Jesús, etc. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Herrerian architecture or the Isabelline Gothic. This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims. [21] The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan) actually means "Hyrax", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. [153] The Defence Staff (Estado Mayor de la Defensa) assists the JEMAD as auxiliary body. Other writers from this period are Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, José de Espronceda, Rosalía de Castro or Mariano José de Larra. The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. International Film Festivals of Valladolid and San Sebastian are the oldest and more relevant in Spain. [citation needed], The Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and was less strong than in other European countries, but during the XIX century liberal ideas arrived in Spanish society. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. [263] In addition, Spain has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage, or "Human treasures". During the period of Muslim rule in Al-Andalus, Muslim, Jewish and Christian philosophies flourished, including the works of such philosophers such as Ibn Arabi, Averroes and Maimonides. Under Islamic law, Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. A constitution for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the PSOE followed. [30] Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.[29]. Spanish explorers brought back precious metals, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe. comarca) and the vegueries (sing. It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal. [25][28] Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age. While varieties of football have been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. It was constructed by the Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron from 2001 to 2007, which combined an old unused industrial building and hollowed it out at the base and inside and placed on top further floors which are encased with rusted steel. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles) generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters (12 nautical miles). Tourism in Spain is the third major contributor to national economic life after the industrial and the business/banking sectors, contributing about 10–11% of Spain's GDP. Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. As in the rest of Europe during the Late Middle Ages, Antisemitism greatly increased during the 14th century in the Christian kingdoms (a key event in that regard was the Black Death, as Jews were accused of poisoning the waters). Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. An influential style centred in Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the Prime Minister, who is nominated as candidate by the monarch after holding consultations with representatives from the different parliamentary groups, voted in by the members of the lower house during an investiture session and then formally appointed by the monarch. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty. The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, Margarita Salas and Severo Ochoa. [251] The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed. The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. The anthem of Majorca is La Balanguera. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain to experience one of these festivals. The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. [157] Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy,[158][159][160] and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK.[161]. El Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio de España, durante la presidencia de José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (legislaturas VIII y IX), fue un departamento ministerial con competencias en industria, comercio, energía y turismo. The most popular Spanish mainland coasts are on its Mediterranean side, and include, from north to south clockwise: Spain's two archipelagoes, the Balearic Islands off the mainland coast in the Mediterranean and the volcanic Canary Islands in the Atlantic, are also both very popular destinations with Spaniards and Europeans. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councilors in rural areas. Roman Catholicism, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. [11] Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. [i][30] Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine. Tourism in Spain is the third major contributor to national economic life after the industrial and the business/banking sectors, contributing about 10–11% of Spain's GDP. Spain's national airline is Iberia, but the country can be flown into on many international passenger airlines and charter airlines. All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified: Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); several cold soups like gazpacho; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia[270] and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia.[271]. [97] Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA, evidence soon emerged indicating Islamist involvement. Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio; Logotipo del Ministerio. There are 47 public airports in Spain. The main train operator is RENFE, including AVE (Spanish high speed train) or Talgo intercity services. The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom. The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. Ordoño was at the moment engaged against his constant enemies the Moors; but a count of the province, Don Pedro, attacked the Vikings and defeated them.[41]. The capital of the island, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. [77] In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century. [109][110] Later that day the Senate granted the power to impose direct rule and Mr Rajoy dissolved the Catalan parliament and called a new election. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago. During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy."[141]. Highlights of the museum include excellent collections of Spain's greatest 20th-century masters, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró, Juan Gris and Julio González. [citation needed], Contemporary philosophers include Fernando Savater and Adela Cortina, creator of the term aporophobia. [22], Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima. [39], The Museo Nacional del Romanticismo (National Museum of Romanticism) contains a large collection of artefacts and art, focusing on daily life and customs of the 19th century, with special attention to the aesthetics about Romanticism. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Music festivals includes the Sónar, the FIB, the Festimad, the Primavera Sound, the Bilbao BBK Live, the Monegros Desert Festival and the SOS 4.8 Festival. Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions. Rosa Chacel, Gloria Fuertes, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Juan Goytisolo, Carmen Martín Gaite, Ana María Matute, Juan Marsé, Blas de Otero, Gabriel Celaya, Antonio Gamoneda, Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or Ignacio Aldecoa. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims,[62] for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. Spain's two most preeminent writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Camilo José Cela and Miguel Delibes from Generation of '36. Its latitude puts part of the country in direct contact with the typical southern end of the Atlantic polar jet. Turismo en España Ofertas de Excursiones, Tours y paquetes turísticos. The 1996 Campeonato de España de Turismos was won by Jordi Gene with Audi A4 Quattro; the German manufacturer won the constructors' championship. The Napoleonic conflict in Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Other festivals include: La Tomatina tomato festival in Buñol, Valencia, the carnivals in the Canary Islands, the Falles in Valencia or the Holy Week in Andalusia and Castile and León. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire. [111] No country recognised Catalonia as a separate state. Parador désigne l'hôtel en lui-même (Parador de Cruz de Tejeda, par exemple). Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. España es una potencia turística, el segundo país más visitado del mundo en 2018 con 83 millones de turistas, y el segundo país del mundo en ingresos económicos provenientes del turismo. Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. The last Muslim state fell in 1492, the same year Columbus reached the Americas. It is also the terminus of the Way of Saint James. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road. Angel Alañón & M. Gómez-Antonio, [Estimating the size of the shadow economy in Spain: a structural model with latent variables], Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table for figure 49. From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. Paradores de Turismo de España est une catégorie d'hôtellerie de luxe fondée par le roi Alphonse XIII pour promouvoir le tourisme en Espagne dès 1928. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. [citation needed], Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem, Isabel Coixet, Alejandro Amenábar, Icíar Bollaín and brothers David Trueba and Fernando Trueba. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors. The company was founded by Alfonso XIII as a means to promote tourism in Spain, with the first hotel opening in 1928 in Gredos ().This state-run business has been profitable. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. [184] Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction). Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne. Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by, a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the. Chapter 1 – Hispania", Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. [40], The Museo Cerralbo houses a private collection of ancient works of art, artifacts and other antiquities collected by Enrique de Aguilera y Gamboa, XVII Cerralbo Marquis. The health care system of Spain (Spanish National Health System) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization. ", "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza", "Spain's economy / Plain sailing no longer", "Spain's population falls as immigrants flee crisis", "Basque separatists Eta announce ceasefire", "Spain's Indignados protest here to stay", "Mariano Rajoy announces €65bn in austerity measures for Spain", "Spain king: Juan Carlos signs his abdication", "El Parlament de Cataluña aprueba la resolución para declarar la independencia", "Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain takeover bid", "Catalan crisis: Spain PM Rajoy demands direct rule", "Catalonia independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament", "Catalonia: what direct rule from Madrid could mean", "Spain's Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, Is Ousted in No-Confidence Vote", "Coronavirus latest: Britain's Prince Charles tests positive for Covid-19", «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera hispano-lusa (La Raya)», "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated – (see p.3)", World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, "SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality", "Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government", "La Constitución española de 1978. [citation needed], The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations, "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. [119][120] The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. Several cities have hosted international events: the 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition, the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition, the 1992 Summer Olympics, all in Barcelona, the Universal fair of 1992 in Seville, the 2007 America's Cup in Valencia, and the Expo 2008 in Zaragoza. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic, the latter yielded to a stable monarchic period, the Restoration, a rigid bipartisan regime fuelled up by the turnismo (the prearranged rotation of government control between liberals and conservatives) and the form of political representation at the countryside (based on clientelism) known as caciquismo [es].[85]. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms. [208], Source: "Áreas urbanas +50", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013)[209]. During the early Middle Ages it came under Visigothic rule, and then much of it was conquered by Muslim invaders from North Africa. This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of North Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto member of the group.[17]. [205] The estimate between 1492 and 1832 is 1.86 million. Spain is a generally mountainous country, with well-known ski resorts located in several parts of the country, including the Pyrenees, the Sistema Central, the Sistema Ibérico and Sierra Nevada. The ten most populous islands of Spain (2019): Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains.

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